Exploración de metáforas espacio-temporales para la codificación de idiomas aprendidos en las escuelas primárias

Magdalen Phillips

Resumen


Las acciones que acompañan al lenguaje hablado apoyan su retención y recuerdo. Esta estrategia puede aprovecharse para aprender idiomas adicionales en la escuela primaria (PL). Los códigos asociados promulgados junto con el lenguaje hablado utilizan el sistema de espejo del cerebro, lo que permite recordar cada vez que se vuelve a representar la acción asociada, sin importar quién lo haga.
La dependencia de la forma ortográfica es potencialmente perjudicial al establecer la pronunciación. La “cognición corporal” hipotetiza que todo el input se representa dentro de los sistemas sensoriales y motores en el procesamiento conceptual de los alumnos (Mahon y Caramazza 2008), Sin embargo, la hipótesis de la cognición desencarnada cuestiona el procesamiento a través de estos sistemas de conceptos abstractos o simbólicos debido a su diferente naturaleza cualitativa. Se puede decir que la temporalidad es un concepto abstracto porque es relativa e inidentificable dentro de cualquier sistema sensorial particular. Sin embargo, las metáforas espacio-temporales que conceptualizamos en el espacio que nos rodea pueden esquematizarse para representar el pasado, el presente y el futuro. Indicarlas dentro de los códigos asociados puede extender el repertorio hablado de los alumnos y los entendimientos gramaticales de tiempo.

Restringir el aprendizaje PL a la forma presente simple limita la funcionalidad del lenguaje y, por lo tanto, su uso auténtico, incluso para los enfoques bilingües o CLIL. La gramática PL aprendida explícitamente es un desafío para las primeras etapas del desarrollo cognitivo. Sin embargo, la aptitud para la fonología del lenguaje, que se dice que alcanza a un máximo de 4 años de edad, permite a los alumnos aprender los tiempos verbales en forma hablada. En Inglaterra, los alumnos (de 6 a 7 años) conceptualizan en inglés las nociones de presente, pasado y futuro (National Curriculum 2014) y también los tiempos verbales progresivos de L1. El soporte de los códigos asociados actuados junto con los formularios hablados de PL ensayados permitiría la recuperación y la retención.

Este artículo es una revisión sistemática de la literatura que explora metáforas espacio-temporales que aprovechan el espacio corporal como un código para la temporalidad. La siguiente sección proporciona una breve descripción del aprendizaje de idiomas primarios en Inglaterra, a diferencia de lo de otros países europeos.


Palabras clave


metáforas espacio-tiempo; codificación de tiempos verbales; inclusividad

Referencias


Adams AM (2016). How Language Is Embodied in Bilinguals and Children with Specific Language Impairment. Front. Psychol. 7, 1209. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01209.

Ahangari, S., Rahbar, S. & Maleki, S.E. (2015). Pronunciation or listening enhancement: two birds with one stone. International Journal of Language and Applied Linguistics. 1 (2), 13-19.

Bedny, M., Caramazza, A., Grossman, E., Pascual-Leone, A., & Saxe, R. (2008). Concepts are more than percepts: the case of action verbs. Journal of Neuroscience, 28(44), 11347-11353.

Blakemore, S. J., & Frith, U. (2005). The learning brain: Lessons for education. Oxford: Blackwell publishing.

Blondin, C., Candelier, M., Edelenbos, P., Johnstone, R., Kubanek-German, A., & Taeschner, T. (1998). Foreign languages in primary and pre-school education: context and outcomes: a review of recent research within the European Union. London: Cilt.

Bottini, R., Crepaldi, D., Casasanto, D., Crollen, V., & Collignon, O. (2015). Space and time in the sighted and blind. Cognition, 141, 67-72.

Burstall, C. (1968). French form eight: a national experiment (No. 18). National Foundation for Educational Research in England and Wales.

Burstall, C. (1975). Primary French in the balance. Educational Research, 17(3), 193-198.

Calbris, G. (2011) Elements of Meaning in Gesture. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Cameron-Faulkner, T., Theakston, A., Lieven, E., & Tomasello, M. (2015). The relationship between infant holdout and gives, and pointing. Infancy, 20(5), 576-586.

Cartmill, E. A., Hunsicker, D., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (2014). Pointing and naming are not redundant: Children use gesture to modify nouns before they modify nouns in speech. Developmental Psychology, 50(6), 1660.

Cooperrider, K., Gentner, D., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (2016). Spatial analogies pervade complex relational reasoning: Evidence from spontaneous gestures. Cognitive research: principles and implications, 1(1), 28.

Corbett, P., & Strong, J. (2011). Talk For Writing Across The Curriculum: How to Teach Non-fiction Writing 5-12 Years. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).

Croft, W. (2014). Possible verbs and the structure of events. In Meanings and Prototypes (RLE Linguistics B: Grammar)(pp. 58-83). Routledge.

Dehaene, S., Felipe Pegado, Lucia W Braga, Paulo Ventura, Gilberto Nunes Filho, Antoinette Jobert, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz, Régine Kolinsky, José Morais, Laurent Cohen (2010). How learning to read changes the cortical networks for vision and language. Science 330 (6009): 1359 – 1364.

Department for Education (DfE) (2014). https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-curriculum-in-england-framework-for-key-stages-1-to-4/the-national-curriculum-in-england-framework-for-key-stages-1-to-4 accessed 13.5.18.

Department for Education and Schools (DfES). (2007). https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/department-for-education-and-skills accessed 13.5.18.

Duffy, S. (2015). The metaphoric representation of time: a cognitive linguistic perspective (Doctoral dissertation, Northumbria University).

Fuchs, T. & Koch, S.C. (2014). Embodied affectivity: on moving and being moved. Front. Psychology June 2014.

Enever, J., & Lindgren, E. (Eds.). (2017). Early Language Learning: Complexity and Mixed Methods. Multilingual Matters.

Gallese, V. (2005)The inner sense of action: Agency and motor representations. Journal of Consciousness Studies, (2000), 7(10), 23-40.

Studies, (2000), 7(10), 23-40.

Garbarini, F., & Adenzato, M. (2004). At the root of embodied cognition: Cognitive science meets neurophysiology. Brain and cognition, 56(1), 100-106.

Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. New York: Basic Books.

Gardner, H. E. (2008). Multiple intelligences: New horizons in theory and practice. Basic books.

Gentner, D., Imai, M., & Boroditsky, L. (2002). As time goes by: Evidence for two systems in processing space→ time metaphors. Language and cognitive processes, 17(5), 537-565.

Giese, M. A., & Rizzolatti, G. (2015). Neural and computational mechanisms of action processing: Interaction between visual and motor representations. Neuron, 88(1), 167-180.

Glenberg, A. M., & Gallese, V. (2012). Action-based language: A theory of language acquisition, comprehension, and production. cortex, 48(7), 905-922.

Goldin-Meadow, S. (2003). Hearing Gesture: how our hands help us think. London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Goldin-Meadow, S., & Singer, M. A. (2003). From children’s hands to adults’ ears: gesture’s role in the learning process. Developmental psychology, 39(3), 509.

Graham, S. (2012). Documents, Presentation and Video. Progress and Preparedness for Secondary school. A study of young learners of French/ https://pmlresearch.com/documents-and-video. Accessed 26.6.18.

Hendricks, R. K., & Boroditsky, L. (2017). New space–time metaphors foster new nonlinguistic representations. Topics in cognitive science, 9(3), 800-818.

Hyde, K. L., Lerch, J., Norton, A., Forgeard, M., Winner, E., Evans, A. C., & Schlaug, G. (2009). Musical training shapes structural brain development. Journal of Neuroscience, 29(10), 3019-3025.

Iossifova, R., & Marmolejo-Ramos, F. (2013). When the body is time: spatial and temporal deixis in children with visual impairments and sighted children. Research in developmental disabilities, 34(7), 2173-2184.

Language Trends 15-16 (2016) https://www.britishcouncil.org/sites/default/files/language_trends_survey_2016_0.pdf. accessed 13.5.18

Language Trends (2018). https://www.britishcouncil.org/sites/default/files/language_trends_2018.pdf. accessed 29.6.18.

Lee, N. (2004). The neurobiology of procedural memory. Schumann, J.H., Crowell, S.E., Jones, N.E., Lee, N., Schuchert, S.A. & Wood, L.A. The Neurobiology of Learning: Perspectives from Second Language Acquisition London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

L, E. H. (1967). Biological foundations of language. New York: Wiley.

Levinson, S.C. (2004). Time for a linguistic anthropology of time.

Lindgren, E., & Muñoz, C. (2013). The influence of exposure, parents, and linguistic distance on young European learners’ foreign language comprehension. International Journal of Multilingualism, 10(1), 105-129.

Lapaire, J-R.(2017). The choreography of time : metaphor, gesture and construal. In Gabriel, Rosangela.; Pelosi, Ana Cristina (eds.). Linguagem e cognição: emergência e produção de sentidos., Insular, , ISBN 978-85-7474-952.

Lövdén, M., Wenger, E., Mårtensson, J., Lindenberger, U., & Bäckman, L. (2013). Structural brain plasticity in adult learning and development. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 37(9), 2296-2310.

Macaro, E. (2003). Teaching and Learning a Second Language. London: Continuum.

Macedonia, M., Müller, K., & Friederici, A. D. (2011). The impact of iconic gestures on foreign language word learning and its neural substrate. Human brain mapping, 32(6), 982-998.

Mahon, B. Z., & Caramazza, A. (2008). A critical look at the embodied cognition hypothesis and a new proposal for grounding conceptual content. Journal of physiology-Paris, 102(1-3), 59-70.

Margolies, S.O. & Crawford, L.E. Event valence and spatial metaphors of time. Cognition and Emotion 22 (7), 1401 – 1414.

Mechelli, A., Crinion, J.T., Noppeney, U., O’Doherty, J., Ashburner, J., Frackowiak, R.S. & Price, C.J. (2004). Neurolinguistics: structural plasticity in the bilingual brain. Nature, 431, (7018) 757.

Murphy, V. A. (2014). Second Language Learning in the Early School Years: Trends and Contexts-Oxford Applied Linguistics. Oxford University Press.

Murphy, V.A. (2017). Literacy Development in Children with English as an Additional Language. In J. Enever & E. Lindgren. Early Language Learning: Complexity and Mixed Methods. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Núñez, R., & Cooperrider, K. (2013). The tangle of space and time in human cognition. Trends in cognitive sciences, 17(5), 220-229.

Ostry, D. J., & Gribble, P. L. (2016). Sensory plasticity in human motor learning. Trends in neurosciences, 39(2), 114-123.

Palmer, S., & Corbett, P. (2003). Literacy: What Works?. Nelson Thornes.

Phillips, M. (2012). Generalist primary class teachers’ perceived confidence in embedding and facilitating plenary spoken ML tasks on the interactive whiteboard to supplement specialist-led ML lessons. Unpublished.

Phillips, M. (2010). The perceived value of videoconferencing with primary pupils learning to speak a modern language. The Language Learning Journal, 38(2), 221-238.

Pizorn, K. (2017). Content and Language Integrated Learning CLIL): a panacea for young English language learners? pp 145 – 165 in Enever, J., & Lindgren, E. (Eds.). (2017). Early Language Learning: Complexity and Mixed Methods. Multilingual Matters.

Porter, A. (2016). A helping hand with language learning: teaching French vocabulary with gesture. The Language Learning Journal, 44(2), 236-256.

Porter, A. (2017) Verbal working memory and FL learning in English primary schools: Implications for teaching and learning. pp 65 – 84. In Enever, J., & Lindgren, E. (Eds.). (2017). Early Language Learning: Complexity and Mixed Methods. Multilingual Matters.

Rinaldi, L., Vecchi, T., Fantino, M., Merabet, L. B., & Cattaneo, Z. (2018). The ego-moving metaphor of time relies on visual experience: No representation of time along the sagittal space in the blind. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 147(3), 444.

Robson, C. (2002). Real world research. 2nd. Edition. Blackwell Publishing. Malden.

Rowe, M. L., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (2009). Early gesture selectively predicts later language learning. Developmental science, 12(1), 182-187.

Santiago, J., Lupáñez, J., Pérez, E., & Funes, M. J. (2007). Time (also) flies from left to right. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14(3), 512-516.

Schuchert, S.A. (2004) The neurobiology of attention. Schumann, J.H., Crowell, S.E., Jones, N.E., Lee, N., Schubert, S.A. & Wood, L.A. The Neurobiology of Learning: perspectives from second language acquisition Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah, New Jersey.

Schumann, J.H. (1998) The Neurobiology of Affect in Language. Oxford, England: Blackwell.

Schumann, J.H. (1999) A neurobiological perspective on affect and methodology in second language learning. Arnold, J. (Ed.) Affect in Language Learning. Cambridge: CUP.

Schumann, J. H., Crowell, S. E., Jones, N. E., Lee, N., & Schuchert, S. A. (2014). The neurobiology of learning: Perspectives from second language acquisition. Routledge.

Smith, L., & Gasser, M. (2005). The development of embodied cognition: Six lessons from babies. Artificial life, 11(1-2), 13-29.

Tomasello, M. (2003). Constructing a Language: a usage-based theory of language acquisition. London: Harvard University Press

Torralbo, A., Santiago, J., & Lupiáñez, J. (2006). Flexible conceptual projection of time onto spatial frames of reference. Cognitive Science, 30(4), 745-757.

Tversky, B. & Martin Hard, B. (2008). Embodied and disembodied cognition: Spatial perspective-taking. Cognition 110: 124 – 129.

Wakefield, E., Novack, M. A., Congdon, E. L., Franconeri, S., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (2018). Gesture helps learners learn, but not merely by guiding their visual attention. Developmental science, e12664.

Walker, E. J., Bergen, B. K., & Núñez, R. (2014). Disentangling spatial metaphors for time using non-spatial responses and auditory stimuli. Metaphor and Symbol, 29(4), 316-327.

Wray, A. (2002). (ed). Transition to Language. Oxford: OUP.

Zinken, J. (2010). Temporal frames of reference. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265279320. accessed 13.5.18


Texto completo: PDF (English)

DOI: 10.30827/reugra.v26i0.124
Contador de visualizaciones: Resumen : 85 vistas. PDF (English) : 42 vistas.

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.

ISSN: 0214-0489